Chinese Poetic Forms

(fù): Han Dynasty

(shī): Han Dynasty →
encompasses the widest range of poetic work

古诗 (gǔshī, 'old poetry')
  pre-Tang, few constraints
近体诗 (jìntĭshī, 'regulated verse')
  at zenith in Tang

  lines of 5 or 7 characters
绝句 (júejù) 4 lines
律诗 (lǜshī) 8 lines
   ○ 排律(páilǜ) unlimited number of lines

(cí): Southern & Northern Dynasties →
at zenith in Song Dynasty
originally new lyrics for pre-existing melodies

became poetic form in its own right
often categorized by length or music

(qǔ, 'melody'): Song/Yuan/Ming Dynasties
at zenith in Yuan Dynasty
basis of operas without dialogue

新诗 (xīnshī, 'new poetry'): 1919  →
popularized by the May 4th movement, no rhyme, few constraints

This is not an exhaustive list, just a sketch to give you a basic foundation in forms of Chinese poetry.

source: zh.wikipedia.org (04.02.08)